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Routine lab tests of kidney disease

2012-09-11 11:44

1. Items of routine urine tests (urinalysis)

● Urine pH value—reference value 5.0-7.0

● Urine specific gravity—high fever and dehydration etc. lead to prerenal oliguria when urine specific gravity increases; renal tubulus damages can be found when the value decreases.

● Urinary sediment

● WBC (white blood cells)—the appearance of white blood cells often indicates urinary tract infections.

● RBC (red blood cells)—when red blood cells occur, kidney stones, tumor, glomerular disease, inflammation or purpura can happen.

● Urine casts—urine casts can be seen in various types, such as renal epithelial cell cast, red blood cell cast, white blood cell cast, and granular cast etc. More often than not, acute renal tubularnecrosis, renal amyloidosis, acute glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, chronic nephritis, kidney transplant rejection or metal poisoning etc. may develop as renal epithelial cell cast appears; glomerular disease forms as RBC casts show up.

● Epithelial cells

● Addis count



● BIL (bilirubin)

● NIT (nitrite)

● KET (ketone body test)

● OBT (occult blood test)

● Measurement of C3

● Measurement of IgM

● Osmotic pressure assay—the increase of osmotic pressure assay can be seen when one suffers from high fever or dehydration etc. the decrease indicates renal tubular damages such as Acute or Chronic Renal Failure or diabetes insipidus etc.

● Urine lysozyme

● Urine β2-microglobulin

● Urine α1-microglobulin—is the early index of diagnosing renal proximal tubule.

● Myoglobinuria

● Hemoglobin

2. Blood tests

● Red blood cell count

● WBC count

● Lymphocyte percentage

● Neutrophil cell count

● MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)—320-360g/L

● Ret (reticulocyte)

● PLT (platelet count) -- aplastic anemia, radioactive damage or malignant lymphoma etc. occurs as PLT reduces; reversely, acute infection or hemolysis forms as PLT elevates.

3. Urine test biochemical analysis

● Creatinine clearance rate

● phenol red rate

● renal blood flow

4. blood test biochemical analysis

● Serum creatinine—GFR declines can be seen in Acute or Chronic Renal Failure as increases.

● TP (total protein)

● serum albumin

● serum globulins

● BUN (blood urea nitrogen)—in the case of Acute and Chronic Renal Failure etc, BUN rises.

● β2-microglobulin—the reduction of β2-microglobulin presents as a declined glomerular filtration rate. Sometime, the value elevates as tumor develops.

● immunoglobulin

● Measurement of total complement

● C3—acute inflammation, early stage of infectious disease, tumor and rejection response etc. can be seen as C3 elevates; while the value of C3 reduces in the case of acute glomerulonephritis, nephritis induced by streptococcal infection, lupus nephritis, SLE or rheumatoid arthritis.

● C4—the drop of C4 is usually caused by lupus nephritis, SLE, Type 1 Diabetes, IgA Nephropathy or autoimmune hepatitis etc.

● IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE

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