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Tests for Uremia

2012-09-11 11:39

Uremia can detect the condition of toxins accumulation accurately and then help doctor use medicines precisely and do the toxins clearance.

Serum urea

Urea is the end product of amino acid catabolism, Its molecular weight is only 61, so it can get through glomeruli freely, 50% of urea in the initial urine is absorbed by kidney tubules and collecting duct. When kidney tubules has pathological changes, the reabsorption reduces and blood level decreases. The generation of urea is less constant than that of creatinine, the high-proteins diet can influence it obviously. Because the kidneys have very strong compensatory ability, the level of serum urea will not increase until GFR declines to at least 50%.

Serum creatinine

Serum creatinine includes the exogenous creatinine which mainly comes from foods and the endogenous creatinine which is produced by the muscles. The generation of creatinine in a day is relatively constant. Most of creatinine is filtrated into initial urine and is not reabsorbed by kidney tubules. So, if the intake of exogenous creatinine can be controlled, creatinine is a ideal index of kidney function.

Serum uric acid

Uric acid is the metabolin of nucleoprotein and purine in nucleic acid. It can freely get through the filtration membrane and nearly all of the uric acid is reabsorbed by kidney tubules. So the concentration of uric acid is influenced by the filtration function of glomeruli and the reabsorption function of kidney tubules.

Serumβ-2 microglobulin

For common people, the generation of β-2-MG in a day is constant, 99% is absorbed by the proximal tubule. It is such a index which is more sensitive than serum creatinine. If serumβ-2-MG increases, it can tell the filtration function of glomeruli is damaged; if serumβ-2-MG and urineβ-2-MG increase at the same time, also serumβ-2-MG <5mg/L, it can tell not only glomeruli is damaged, also the reabsorption function of kidney tubules.


Cystatin-C is a kind of basic protein which can be secreted by all the karyocyte. It has the small molecular weight and it can freely get through the filtration membrane, and almost all the Cystatin-C is absorbed by the proximal tubules. Cystatin-C is such a index reflecting the early filtration dysfunction of glomeruli. Cystatin-C has been recommended to replace the serum uric acid, serum creatinine checks.

Retinol binding protein (RBP)

RBP is the translocator of retinol in the blood. The changes of RBP content can reflect the function of proximal tubules and its damage degree sensitively, also it can be the index of the early damage of liver function. If the level of RBP decreases, it may be vitamin A deficiency, hypoproteinemia, malabsorption syndrome, liver diseases, obstructive jaundice, hyperthyroidism, infectious diseases or trauma; if the level of RBP increases, it may be renal insufficiency or fatty liver.

Homocysteine (HCY)

HCY is a heterogeneity of cysteine, it can promote the blood coagulation factor Ⅻ, Ⅴ to increase, then platelet to adhere and accumulate, which is easy to cause thrombus. The lower the concentration of cysteine in the body is, the body keeps a more perfect biochemical balance.

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