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Five Special Tests for Immunization

2012-09-11 11:41

Five items for immunization include IgA, IgG, IgM, complement C3 and C4. Changes of those indexes, under some circumstances, signal certain diseases and help diagnose.

IgG is also known as immunoglobulin G. Glomerular damage severity can be found by detecting changes of IgG in serum. General speaking, the content of IgG in umbilical cord blood is around 7.6-17g/L and 6-16g/L in adults.

When would IgG elevate? People with chronic liver disease, subacute or chronic infections, connective tissue diseases, IgG myeloma or asymptomatic monoclonal IgG disease etc. may suffer from increased IgG level. Immunoglobulin G reduces in the case of Nephrotic Syndrome, receiving immunosuppressant, selective IgG deficiency, mixed immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited or acquired antibody syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy or myotonic dystrophy etc.

Immunoglobulin A is a major immunoglobulin in secretion, which plays an important part in local immunity.

Increased IgA signals acute nephritis and other diseases mediated by immune inflammatory response. They can be autoimmune disease, such as SLE or rheumatoid arthritis, and also may include IgA Nephropathy, chronic liver disease, IgA myeloma, breast cancer and subacute or chronic infectious disease, for example, tuberculosis and fungus infection etc. Immunoglobulin A may lower under circumstance of burn, latter half of gestation, immunodeficiency disease, selective IgA deficiency, inherited or acquired antibody syndrome, anti-IgA antibody syndrome or immunosuppressant therapy.

Content of IgM in umbilical cord blood is 40-240mg/L, newborn in blood is 50-300mg/L while adults is 400-3450mg/L.

Increased IgM indexes are often in accordance with malaria, infectious mononucleosis, mycoplasma pneumonia, hepatopathy, connective tissue disease, macroglobulinemia or asymptomatic monoclonal IgM disease etc. Meanwhile, burn, acquired antibody syndrome, mixed immunodeficiency syndrome or immunodepression etc. would decrease the level of IgM.

Detection of complements such as C3 and C4 could instruct later treatments and also become a pretty vital index for future diagnosis and prognosis. Reduced C3 and C4 occur in active immune complex nephropathy, such as Lupus Nephritis, while elevated complement concentration can be seen in people with acute gout, diabetes, ulcerative colitis, acute myocardial infarction, obstructive jaundice, dermatomyositis and so on.

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